Multi-Component Data Model

    Propel comes along with packaging capabilities that allow you to more easily integrate Propel into a packaged or modularized application.

    Multiple Schemas

    You can use as many schema.xml files as you want. Schema files have to be named (*.)schema.xml, so names like schema.xml, package1.schema.xml, core.package1.schema.xml are all acceptable. These files have to be located in your project directory.

    Each schema file has to contain a <database> element with a name attribute. This name references the connection settings to be used for this database (and configured in the database section of your configuration file), so separated schemas can share a common database name.

    Whenever you call a propel build tasks, Propel will consider all these schema files and build the classes (or the SQL) for all the tables.

    Understanding Packages

    In Propel, a package represents a group of models. This is a convenient way to organize your code in a modularized way, since classes and SQL files of a given package are be grouped together and separated from the other packages. By carefully choosing the package of each model, applications end up in smaller, independent modules that are easier to manage.

    Package Cascade

    The package is defined in a configuration cascade. You can set it up for the whole project, for all the tables of a schema, or for a single table.

    For the whole project, the main package is set in the configuration file:

    ;example in ini format
    propel.generator.targetPackage = my_project
    

    By default, all the tables of all the schemas in the project use this package. However, you can override the package for a given <database> by setting its package attribute:

    <!-- in author.schema.xml -->
    <database package="author" name="bookstore">
        <table name="author">
            <!-- author columns -->
        </table>
    </database>
    
    <!-- in book.schema.xml -->
    <database package="book" name="bookstore">
        <table name="book">
            <!-- book columns -->
        </table>
        <table name="review">
            <!-- review columns -->
        </table>
    </database>
    

    In this example, thanks to the package attribute, the tables are grouped into the following packages:

    • my_project.author package: author table
    • my_project.book package: book and review tables

    Warning
    If you separate tables related by a foreign key into separate packages (like book and author in this example), you must enable the packageObjectModel build property to let Propel consider other packages for relations.

    You can also override the package attribute at the <table> element level.

    <!-- in author.schema.xml -->
    <database package="author" name="bookstore">
        <table name="author">
            <!-- author columns -->
        </table>
    </database>
    
    <!-- in book.schema.xml -->
    <database package="book" name="bookstore">
        <table name="book">
            <!-- book columns -->
        </table>
        <table name="review" package="review">
            <!-- review columns -->
        </table>
    </database>
    

    This ends up in the following package:

    • my_project.author package: author table
    • my_project.book package: book table
    • my_project.review package: review table

    Notice that tables can end up in separated packages even though they belong to the same schema file.

    Tip: You can use dots in a package name to add more package levels.

    Packages and Generated Model Files

    The package attribute of a table translates to the directory in which Propel generates the Model classes for this table.

    For instance, if no package attribute is defined at the database of table level, Propel places all classes according to the propel.generator.targetPackage from the configuration file:

    • generated-classes/
      • Base/
      • Map/
      • Author.php
      • AuthorQuery.php
      • Book.php
      • BookQuery.php
      • Review.php
      • ReviewQuery.php

    You can further tweak the location where Propel puts the created files by changing the propel.paths.outputDir configuration property. By default this property is set to the current path (the path where you're running propel commands).

    You can change it to use any other directory as your build directory.

    If you set up packages for <database> elements, Propel splits up the generated model classes into subdirectories named after the package attribute:

    • generated-classes/
      • author/
        • Base/
        • Map/
        • Author.php
        • AuthorQuery.php
      • book/
        • Base/
        • Map/
        • Book.php
        • BookQuery.php
        • Review.php
        • ReviewQuery.php

    And of course, if you specialize the package attribute per table, you can have one table use its own package:

    • generated-classes/
      • author/
        • Base/
        • Map/
        • Author.php
        • AuthorQuery.php
      • book/
        • Base/
        • Map/
        • Book.php
        • BookQuery.php
      • review/
        • Base/
        • Map/
        • Review.php
        • ReviewQuery.php

    Packages And SQL Files

    Propel also considers packages for SQL generation. In practice, Propel generates one SQL file per package. Each file contains the CREATE TABLE SQL statements necessary to create all the tables of a given package.

    So by default, all the tables end up in a single SQL file:

    • generated-sql/
      • schema.sql

    If you specialize the package for each <database> element, Propel uses it for SQL files:

    • generated-sql/
      • author.schema.sql // contains CREATE TABLE author
      • book.schema.sql // contains CREATE TABLE book and CREATE TABLE review

    And, as you probably expect it, a package overridden at the table level also accounts for an independent SQL file:

    • generated-sql
      • author.schema.sql // contains CREATE TABLE author
      • book.schema.sql // contains CREATE TABLE book
      • review.schema.sql // contains CREATE TABLE review

    Understanding The packageObjectModel Configuration Property

    The propel.generator.packageObjectModel configuration property enables the "packaged" build process. This modifies the build tasks behavior by joining <database> elements of the same name - but keeping their packages separate. That allows to split a large schema into several files, regardless of foreign key dependencies, since Propel will join all schemas using the same database name.

    This property is enabled by default.

    The Bookstore Packaged Example

    In the bookstore-packaged example you'll find the following schema files:

    • author.schema.xml
    • book.schema.xml
    • club.schema.xml
    • media.schema.xml
    • publisher.schema.xml
    • review.schema.xml
    • log.schema.xml

    Each schema file has to contain a <database> tag that has its package attribute set to the package name where all of the tables in this schema file/database belong to.

    For example, in the bookstore-packaged example the author.schema.xml contains the following <database> tag:

    <database package="core.author" name="bookstore" [...]>
    

    That means, that the Author OM classes will be created in a subdirectory core/author/ of the build output directory.

    You can have more than one schema file that belong to one package. For example, in the the bookstore-packaged example both the book.schema.xml and media.schema.xml belong to the same package "core.book". The generated OM classes for these schemas will therefore end up in the same core/book/ subdirectory.

    The Object Model build

    To run the packaged bookstore example build simply go to the propel/test/fixtures/bookstore-packages/ directory and type:

    $ propel model:build
    

    This should run without any complaints. When you have a look at the projects/bookstore-packaged/generated-classes directory, the following directory tree should have been created:

    • addon/
      • club/
        • BookClubList.php
        • BookListRel.php
    • core/
      • author/
        • Author.php
      • book/
        • Book.php
      • media/
        • Media.php
      • publisher/
        • Publisher.php
      • review/
        • Review.php
    • util/
      • log/
        • BookstoreLog.php

    (The additional subdirectories map/ and om/ in each of these directories have been omitted for clarity.)

    The SQL build

    From the same schema files, run the SQL generation by calling:

    propel sql:build
    

    Then, have a look at the generated-sql/ directory: you will see that for each package (that is specified as a package attribute in the schema file database tags), one sql file has been created:

    • addon.club.schema.sql
    • core.author.schema.sql
    • core.book.schema.sql
    • core.publisher.schema.sql
    • core.review.schema.sql
    • util.log.schema.sql

    These files contain the CREATE TABLE SQL statements necessary for each package.

    When you now run the sql:insert task by typing:

    $ propel sql:insert
    

    these SQL statements will be executed on a SQLite database located in the Propel/generator/test/ directory.